One of the keys to successful agricultural development in Asia and Latin America has been mechanization. By contrast, the use of tractors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has actually declined over the past forty years and, compared with other world regions, their use in SSA today remains very limited. It is critical to ensure food security for the entire population but feeding the increasing urban population cannot be assured by an agricultural system that is largely dominated by hand tool technology. In order to redress the situation, FAO, UNIDO and many African experts are convinced that support is urgently needed for renewed investment in mechanization. This must, however, be done in the right way, taking into account critical factors for success and sustainability. This report summarizes the deliberations of the Round Table Meeting of experts with the intention of providing guidance on the key strategies and good practices for maximizing the benefits and sustainability of investments in agricultural mechanization in Africa.